• Holodomor TIMELINE
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  • Ukraine is divided between the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires prior to World War 1.
    The majority of Ukrainians live in the Russian Empire.

  • WW1 begins. 5,000 Ukrainians (Galicians, Ruthenians) who emigrated from
    the Austro-Hungarian Empire are interned in Canada.

  • TO 1916 The Armenian Genocide inside the Ottoman Empire.

  • MARCH The Russian Revolution and the breakup of the Russian Empire.
    Ukraine establishes a government, the Central Rada.

    NOV. 7 The Bolshevik/Communist takeover in Petrograd, Russia.

  • JAN. 22 Ukraine declares independence as the Ukrainian People’s Republic.

    TO 1920 Ukraine attempts to remain independent, while fighting the Red Army
    (Bolshevik/Communists), the White Army (Russian monarchists),
    the Poles and the Romanians on Ukrainian soil.

    MARCH The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, a separate treaty on the Eastern Front to end the war
    between Germany and her allies, and Russia and the Central Rada of Ukraine.
    Leon Trotsky, representing the Bolshevik Government of Russia, recognized Ukrainian independence.

  • Ukraine is left out at the negotiations on self-determination of nations at the
    Treaty of Versailles. Ukraine is refused recognition as a separate country.

    TO 1921 Civil War rages in the Russian Empire, including Ukraine.

  • The Bolsheviks gain control of Ukraine with the aid of the Red Army.

  • TO 1923 Famine rages in Ukraine. More than 700,000 Ukrainians starve to
    death in this Famine. Food is confiscated and taken out of Ukraine to feed the
    Volga region and Russian cities while Ukrainians starve.

    The New Economic Policy (NEP) is brought in by the Bolsheviks to rebuild the
    economy. It allowed for small farm holdings, permitting Ukrainian farmers to
    continue farming their private land and running small businesses.

  • Ukraine is formally incorporated into the Soviet Union as a republic, the
    Ukrainian SSR, with Kharkiv, in eastern Ukraine, as the new capital.

  • Lenin dies and a power struggle for control of the USSR results between Leon
    Trotsky and Joseph Stalin

  • Ukrainization policy leads to a cultural renaissance. The Ukrainian language
    is encouraged and some Ukrainian intellectuals join the Communist Party of

  • Stalin gains control of the Soviet Union and Communist Party, introduces the
    first Five Year Plan, with collectivization of agriculture and industrialization.

  • The Soviets authorities launch an attack on the potential leaders of resistance
    in Ukraine. A show trial is conducted of a fictitious Union for the Liberation of
    Ukraine which was accused of promoting an independent Ukraine.

    During de-kulakization, over a half million Ukrainian farmers with their
    families are sent to Siberia, executed or sent to concentration camps.
    Uprisings against the Soviet government occur, especially in Ukraine.

  • The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (independent from the
    Moscow Patriarch) is liquidated and the hierarchy are imprisoned or

  • Famine in Ukraine. 40% of the harvest in Ukraine is handed over to the
    government. Little is left for farmers on which to survive. They flee to cities
    and to Russia and Belarus in search of food.

    APRIL 23 The Communist Party ends Ukrainization and liquidates all
    nongovernmental literary organizations in Ukraine.

    AUGUST 7 The “Law of Five Stalks of Grain” allows for the death penalty or
    imprisonment for taking even a handful of grain from the fields. Unproductive
    villages are blacklisted and deprived of food (over one third of villages in

  • There is widespread starvation in Ukraine, the Kuban, and the Caucasus.
    A secret decree blames Ukrainian nationalism for grain problems. The
    Ukrainian language is forbidden in Kuban. The Ukrainian leadership is
    purged, replaced by non-Ukrainians, and the policy of Russification begins.
    The borders of Ukraine and Kuban are closed, preventing starving farmers
    from searching for food. Those caught stealing are sent to the gulag or sent
    home to starve. Moscow denies there is a famine and rejects offers of relief.

    Hitler comes to power in Germany. The United States formally recognizes the
    USSR and establishes diplomatic relations.

  • The USSR is invited to join the League of Nations.